I've realized the best way to learn a new job (or class outside of FFXIV) is to break it down. There are a few ways to do this, but here's what works best for me.
I. Core Mechanics - each job has a core mechanic, right? I try to figure this out as fast as possible. Because that means I can survive if I have to surprise fight something. Generally, this has something to do with your basic spells you learn at a low level. So I look to those first.
II. Single Target Rotation - Once I understand the core mechanics, I build a single target rotation around them. Generally, what can I repeat while I fight a boss, or kill one enemy. This counts as a repeatable sequence of abilities that build off of the core mechanic of the job.
III. Multi Target Rotation - Logically, the multi target rotation is next. Everyone wants to learn how to AoE for those AoE heavy fights, so I look to this next. I also define AoE fights as anything with 4 or more mobs. Otherwise I will single target the mobs down one at a time. This rotation, as I've found, is something that's fairly spammable while there are multiple enemies up.
IV. Cooldowns - Anything with a long cooldown, or spells that you want to line up with other spells, are generally cooldowns. I find these the hardest to master because there is always a most efficient way of lining them up. I also have to take into account the cooldown timer for each spell in order to make sure they line up properly.
V. Utility / crowd control - Each class has both in combat and out of combat utility. That counts as slows, binds, raises, etc. I try to make a note of these and keep them in mind in order to be the best I can be at the job. No one likes to be yelled at when they're expected to CC something and the spell wasn't even on their bar. (I've totally been there).
Once I understand all of these, then I can focus on creating my actual fight rotation. This, of course, needs me to classify the fight as a single target, cleave, or multi target fight. Once that's clear, then I weave together my spell usage and cooldown usage, and possibly even my utility usage, into a sequence that I can practice before the fight. Once I get to the fight, then I can make sure I'm ready to do the most damage that I can.
Hope this helps anyone picking up a new class!
Honestly though, unless the player plans to go more into the advanced stuff such as EX primals or raiding, they do not need to learn THAT much about their job.
Just knowing how each spell and ability works and have a half decent idea about when to push those buttons will get them by in the MSQ content.
FF14 is a VERY causal game after all.
Snow, it is probably implicit in your article, but the role skill are part of this study (especially some obvious cooldowns for tanks or lucid dreaming and swiftcast for healer for instance)
Annabel, you're right that FF14 can be played casually. Nevertheless, even if you don't go into 100% of the details, the approach is good: figure out the purpose of the job, and having an overview of the single target rotation, multi-target rotation and cooldowns helps.
Basic knowledge of skill set is "good enough" yes, I wouldn't promote that tho <.<.
Does someone need to be top tier ENLARGED SEXUAL ORGAN DPS!? Nope. But having an understanding as Yoru commented is very helpful both for the individual as well as the other players in the party. If you are a monk and you press the glowing buttons will that be sufficient? Umm...kinda. Utility ( brotherhood), speed and damage ( greased lightning), positioning ( flank/rear add damage increase) req effort.